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Tuberculosis can be diagnosed by analysis of exhalation before the symptoms manifest themselves

Researchers from the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics of the Russian Academy of Sciences together with colleagues from the Central Research Institute of Tuberculosis proposed to determine if Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, is present in the body, by the number and composition of immunoglobulin A in the air exhaled by persons who could develop the illness. A scientific article is published in the Journal of Breath Research. The work is supported by a grant from the RSF.
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The authors of the work suggested a way to simplify collection of 'Koch's bacillus', as the bacteria is also called, from the lungs and making it less traumatic for patients. To achieve this, they tried to collect bacteria from air, what patients exhaled, with modified Petryanov filters. It turned out that there are no microbes and their DNA in the exhaled microdroplets of the pulmonary fluid, but there are immunoglobulins A, and among them antibodies that are produced only if Mycobacterium tuberculosis is present in the body.

Immunoassay used in the procedure takes just a few minutes thanks to a number of technical innovations developed by the authors. It allows to detect tuberculosis at the early stages, when the symptoms characteristic of the disease have not yet developed.

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The computer vision system will count the audience in the cinemas and analyze their composition

The largest cinema networks began testing a unified system of computer vision. It will allow to determine the number of spectators in the halls, as well as their sex and age characteristics, said Alexandra Artamonova, director of public relations and external communications of the united cinema networks 'Cinema Park' and 'Formula Kino'.
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Artamonova explained that specialists of the software development department of the Rambler Group (AdTech) created a system, parts of which make use of artificial intelligence, machine learning technologies, and mechanisms for recognition of 'physical objects in a real environment'. «The information thus obtained makes it possible to compare the number of tickets sold and the actual number of spectators in the hall, and it also serves as a source of additional analytical data,» Artamonova said.

She also said that the system will allow for more accurate planning of repertoire as well as for use of the obtained information for targeted advertising.

Artamonova stressed that the system does not perform individuals' facial recognition.

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Novosibirsk student invented a technology of printing 3D implants for operations on the skull

Alexander Grief, a student at Novosibirsk State Technical University (NSTU), has invented the first Russian technology for creation of individual implants for people with craniocerebral trauma. The development will in the future make it possible to print an individual implant on a 3D printer, which will reduce transaction costs by saving titanium used in operations, the university press service said on Thursday.
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«The computer program allows to abandon the standard plates, one can create personal implants with individual geometry and strength using the program, and thus significantly reduce the cost of the intervention because less titanium, which is expensive, would be required to produce an implant. After the technology is introduced, an implant can simply be printed on a 3D printer for metal», the university informed.

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Kaliningrad scientists invented a method of genetic diagnosis of diabetes mellitus

Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University (BFU) in Kaliningrad have patented the invention, which will help in early genetic diagnosis of the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, the university press service informed on Thursday.
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The invention is aimed at early genetic diagnosis of the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, the press service noted. The authors of the invention are five employees of the university. One of them, Daria Skuratovskaya, said that the identification of patients with a predisposition to type 2 diabetes mellitus is of great clinical importance, since early diagnosis and treatment can reduce the severity of the main manifestations of the disease.

«The task, which our invention is aimed at solving of, is the early diagnosis of the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus by the method of polymerase chain reaction. The method is simple to implement, <> it allows to formulate treatment tactics taking into account individual characteristics of the patient,» she explained.

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