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Russian and French scientists to study the climate change impact on animals in Greenland and Yamal

Scientists of the Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology (IPAC) of Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences together with colleagues from the French Academy of Sciences are studying the effect of climate change on the state of Arctic ecosystems. Works will be conducted in Greenland and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District (YNAD), said Vasily Sokolov, senior researcher at the Laboratory of Ecology of Birds and Land Invertebrates at the institute.
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«We plan the project together with the French Academy of Sciences. We are going to assess the impact of climate change on Arctic terrestrial ecosystems by studying both the dynamics of populations and the composition of species, based on the data from different sites in Greenland and Russia. There are populations of lemming and of several predator species — foxes, hunting gulls (Stercorarius), and owls, — at all the sites but each of the sites has different structures in terms of magnitudes of populations. We are going to use that contrast in our work,» Sokolov said.

The information obtained during the work on the project will contribute to understanding of the processes which take place in the Arctic ecosystems and will help to work out various scenarios. It will also help develop a strategy for preserving existing biodiversity.

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Saratov scientists created software/hardware complex for eyes treatment

Researchers from Saratov have developed a unique software/hardware complex for diagnostics and treatment of eyes pathologies. The complex has no analogs in Russia and is more advanced than similar foreign devices. The development has been announced by the press-secretary of the Ministry of Industry and Energetics of the region Vladimir Komarov.
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«The researchers from Saratov institutions have created an apparatus intended for healing heterotropia and eye nystagmus. The system operates using PC, monitor, and camera-recorder,» - Komarov clarified.

The treatment is carried out via several stages. First, the subject must undergo a diagnostics: the information is stored on PC in a video-file format and then analyzed. Second, eye diseases are cured using periodic light exposure or by training muscles when following a moving object. Upon completion of procedures, the subject undergoes the second diagnostics to control parameters.

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Siberian scientists developed innovational way of preparing nuclear wastes for dumping

Researchers from the Siberian Federal University (SFU) have worked out a technology of preparing radioactive wastes which remain after processing irradiated nuclear fuel for safe storage, a coauthor of the investigation, professor at SFU, Doctor of Technical Science Vladimir Kulagin reported.
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One of main problems during wastes dumping is the presence of hardly solvable remainders in a pulp (mixture of solid particles and liquid) which one should remove. To solve this issue, the experts from SFU have suggested to apply cavitation which is the process when bubbles of vacuum are formed and then collapsed inside the liquid. Herewith, the impact of bubbles destroy even firm materials For instance, the cavitation leads to amortization of screw-propellers of ships.

The approach created by SFU scientists allows for destroying tight insolvable in water materials which are deposited on the bottom of reservoir with irradiated nuclear fuel.

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A plants analysis neural network by Siberian scientists will help automate diagnosis of cancer

Scientists of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences are developing a neural network for the universal processing of microscopic images — the tool will automate analysis of microscopic images in general and the diagnosis of oncological diseases in particular, and it will also help get useful extracts from plant raw materials in an optimal way, said Igor Lomovsky, the acting head the Laboratory of Solid State Chemistry at the Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry (ISSC) of the SB RAS.
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«We are studying how to properly prepare plant raw materials for extraction processes — i.e. the separation of useful substances. In order to understand these processes, it is necessary to analyse the microphotographs of ultrathin sections of particles, and it is for this purpose the neural network is created. Additionally, automatic processing of photographic images of biological systems will make it possible to reduce by half the load of physicians who are engaged in diagnostics of neoplasms by cells' cuts — the neural network will be able to distinguish automatically a normal wall from a tumour. The information system will also help automate a huge number of microscopic studies: most of them are still done manually,» Lomovsky explained.

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